A total of USD 430 billion in finance was provided to companies in the Fossil Fuels sector in 2019.

56% 44%
Total loans of all 50 banks:
USD 430 Billion
  • Top Ten Banks
  • Rest
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Ten banks with largest finance at risk in the fossil fuel sector (2019, million USD)


Exploration, production, and refining activities saw by far the largest investments at risk of causing biodiversity loss. This contrasts with other sectors, where loans tend to favour industries along the supply chain rather than primary industries.

While the top two recipients of loans (Occidental Petroleum Corporation and the Saudi Arabian Oil Company) are traditional oil and gas companies, the top ten borrowers also included companies focusing on oil and gas trading and transportation as well plastics manufacturers.

The top ten lenders were linked to 57 per cent of all loans identified in this sector.

The four largest investors are all from the USA.

The six banks with the highest ratio of investments to total assets are all located in the USA and Canada.

Industry Scope

Fossil fuels still provide around 80 per cent of the world’s primary energy and sustain the political economy of dozens of countries. The companies that supply and use fossil fuels make up a quarter of the global stock market and half the corporate bond market.

85 per cent of the world’s CO2 emissions come from fossil fuel combustion.

The industry’s three main assets are the 900 billion tonnes of coal, oil and gas valued by the World Bank at USD 39 trillion, the supply infrastructure worth USD 10 trillion, and the demand infrastructure (electricity, transport, and heavy industry) valued at USD 22 trillion.

Top exporters of fossil fuels products (2018, million USD)

Top importers of fossil fuels products (2018, million USD

Total trade value: 2,700,000

Biodiversity Impact

Extraction, processing, and production of fossil fuels impact biodiversity directly through habitat loss and pollution, and indirectly through climate change and increasing accessibility to remote, biodiverse ecosystems.

Areas of concern include exploration, extraction, oil spills and climate change.

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