A total of USD 770 billion in finance was provided to the mining for metals and minerals sector in 2019.
Aside from immediate impacts on forests or water from extraction activities, the majority of loans and finance is indirectly linked to biodiversity risk, such as those provided for products arising from the demand for food, cars, planes, machinery, and electronics (rather than the production of unprocessed metals and minerals).
USD 770 Billion
- Top Ten Banks
Ten banks with largest finance at risk in the MINING sector (2019, million USD)
The top ten banks at risk of financing biodiversity loss via the mining sector are the same that can be found in the forest sector, except for Goldman Sachs which replaced Barclays.
The six banks with the largest proportion of investment in the mining sector compared to their overall assets were all American and Japanese.
The diversity of the sector is also illustrated by the fact the borrowing companies have been identified in 67 countries.
In 2018, the global base metal mining market size was valued USD 325 billion, while the value of the precious metal market has been estimated at around USD 180 billion.
Mining plays a dominant role in 81 countries that collectively account for a quarter of world GDP, half of the world’s population, and nearly 70 per cent of those in extreme poverty.
Top exporters of mining and minerals products (2018, million USD
Top importers of mining and minerals products (2018, million USD)
Total trade value: 1,500,000
Direct impacts on biodiversity include the clearing of native vegetation with follow-on effects such as soil erosion, siltation and pollution of waterways, and the introduction of weeds and invasive species, pests, and diseases of native flora and fauna.
Other areas of concern or impact include habitat loss and fragmentation, infrastructure, water scarcity and quality, and deep-sea mining.